Task 1 (12 points)
Read the two texts and do the task. Fill in each gap with an appropriate phrase from the list. Write the appropriate letter in the gap. There are more phrases than gaps.
Self-Control: The Key to Health and Wealth
Every kid throws temper tantrums and behaves impulsively once in a while. But new research suggests that a lack of self-control during youth may predict health problems, (1) and a criminal record by adulthood.
In a survey of more than 1,000 children who were studied from birth to age 32, scientists found that kids who scored lowest (2) – those who were more impulsive and easily frustrated and had the most trouble with delaying gratification or waiting their (3) – were roughly three times as likely by adulthood to report having multiple health problems and addictions, earning less than $20,000 a year,
becoming a single parent or committing a crime than kids (4) .
The good news is that self-control can be learned. Children (5) who improved self-control on their own as they grew older reported fewer health and criminal behavior problems than those who remained impulsive. So school and family interventions that teach kids (6) may lead to healthier and more stable adults.
Diet and Oral Health
To prevent cavities and maintain good oral health, your diet is (7) . Changes in your mouth start the minute you eat certain foods. Bacteria in the mouth convert sugars to acids, and it’s the acids that (8) the enamel on teeth, starting the decay process. The more often you eat and snack, the more frequently you are exposing your teeth to the cycle of decay.
Foods such as crunchy fruits and vegetables have a high water content, which dilutes the effects of the sugars they contain and (9) of saliva (which helps protect against decay by washing away food particles and buffering acid).
Poor food choices include candy – such as lollipops, hard candies, and mints – cookies, cakes, pies, breads, muffins, potato chips, pretzels, French fries, bananas, raisins, and other dried fruits. These foods contain large amounts of sugar and can stick to teeth, providing (10) for bacteria. In addition, cough drops should be used (11) as they contribute to tooth decay because they continuously coat the teeth with sugar.
Chewing sugarless gum is actually (12) your teeth as chewing helps dislodge food that becomes stuck to your teeth.
(pēc www.time.com un www.webmd.com materiāliem)
|A in the study||H less financial stability|
|B day-long sipping||I only when necessary|
|C to control themselves||J a significant factor|
|D on measures of self-control||K turn in line|
|E starts to attack||L beneficial to|
|F a fuel source||M who can control themselves|
|G stimulates the flow|
Solution steps (Risinājuma soļi) will reveal the right answers and explanations for each position marked with numbers.