Read the text "The art of speaking".
The art of speaking has existed since time immemorial. It flourished in ancient Greece and Rome where it also received its theoretical grounds. So when people speak, it’s very important to use language in a way that is effective and influences people. It is necessary to clarify concepts and goals when you speak.
There are some laws of rhetoric which include:
• the law of harmonizing dialogue. In other words, effective speech communication is only made possible through dialogue like interaction of speech event participants;
• the law of advancing towards the preset communicative goal, when both a communicator and a recipient steadily move to the designated aim;
• the law of emotional colouring of speech. The speaker is supposed to feel what he talks about with all his heart and soul;
• the law of bestowing pleasure. The speaker should aim at pleasing his audience and making communication as rewarding as possible. The speaker is supposed to be enthusiastic himself. And for this purpose he has to be sincere and to know what he is talking about and why he is talking.
Nowadays it’s very important to persuade people when you speak or communicate with them. Sincere appreciation is one of the secrets in handling men. But not flattery is. It seldom works with discerning people. It is shallow, selfish and insincere. It usually fails. The difference between appreciation and flattery is simple.
One is sincere and the other is insincere. One is selfish and the other is unselfish. So when you communicate, try to figure out the other man’s good points. Then forget flattery. Give honest, sincere appreciation. Be hearty in your approbation and lavish in your praise.
Don’t forget that everybody in the world is seeking happiness - and there is one sure way to find it. That is controlling your thoughts. “Nothing is good or bad,” said Shakespeare, “but thinking makes it so.” Happiness doesn’t depend on outward conditions. It depends on inner conditions. So when you talk to people, greet your friends with a smile. Don’t fear being misunderstood and don’t waste a minute thinking about your enemies.
Keep your mind on the great and splendid things you would like to do, and your partner will appreciate you and your ideas. A pleasant smile is a strong indication of a friendly and open attitude. When you smile, you demonstrate that you have noticed the person in a positive manner.
The ancient Chinese are wise a lot, and they have a proverb that you should always remember. It goes like this: “A man without a smiling face must not open a shop.” So don’t forget about the value of a smile when communicating, and everything will be OK.
Write true or false:
1. The speaker should not have the aim at pleasing his audience.
2. The writer thinks that you should not fear being misunderstood.
3. The writer says a lot about the importance of you smile.
И.Кусунько, Е.С. Музланова. Английский язык. Все устные темы для подготовки к выпускному экзамену - Москва: Астрель, 479с.