Read the text below and circle the letter next to the word or phrase which best completes each sentence.
On 15 May 1940, two brothers, Richard and Maurice MacDonald, opened their first restaurant in San Bernardino, an hour’s (0) from Los Angeles. Today more than 32,000 (1) in 117 countries bear their name. The company has managed, in the span of a single human lifetime, to (2) the world. Somewhere (3) , of course, McDonald picked up quite an image problem. Critics (4) the firm of exporting factory farming and obesity to an unwitting world. McDonald kept on (5) (much like the world’s waistbands). They succeeded in turning the kitchen into a perfectly oiled machine, (6) meals could be assembled by a (7) of untrained cooks. Its selling point was factory-like efficiency: each customer ordered at a counter, and would be served within 50 seconds. The brothers called their new way of doing business the “speedy-service system”, and (8) was one of the most profitable means of food production that restaurants (9) . Within years, they were wealthy men. If you study McDonald’s, as food historians often do, this story is part of a very similar pattern which (10) throughout its history. The firm (11) by inspired inventors. (12) , it devotes itself to being a sort of commercial magpie: pinching other people’s brilliant innovations, improving them, and cashing in.