Teorija

How to write an Essay?
An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. You may be writing an essay to argue for a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary to complete a task. Either way, your essay will have the same basic format. If you follow a few simple steps, you will find that the essay almost writes itself. You will be responsible only for supplying ideas, which are the important part of the essay anyway.
 
These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process:
1) Decide on your topic (in the exam the topic will be given).
 
2) Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas.
  
The purpose of an outline or diagram is to put your ideas about the topic on paper, in a moderately organized format. The structure you create here may still change before the essay is complete, so don't agonize over this.
 
3) Write your thesis statement.
  
The thesis statement tells the reader what the essay will be about, and what point you, the author, will be making. You know what the essay will be about. That was your topic. Now you must look at your outline or diagram and decide what point you will be making. What do the main ideas and supporting ideas that you listed say about your topic?
 
Your thesis statement will have two parts. The first part states the topic. The second part states the point of the essay or you could simply list the three main ideas you will discuss.
 
4) Write the body.
 
Each main idea that you wrote down in your diagram or outline will become one of the body paragraphs. If you had three or four main ideas, you will have three or four body paragraphs.
 
- Write the main points.
- Write the subpoints.
- Elaborate on the subpoints.
 
5) Write the introduction.
  
The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and give her an idea of the essay's focus. Begin with an attention grabber. If the attention grabber was only a sentence or two, add one or two more sentences that will lead the reader from your opening to your thesis statement. Finish the paragraph with your thesis statement.
  
6) Write the conclusion.
  
The conclusion brings closure to the reader, summing up your points or providing a final perspective on your topic. All the conclusion needs is three or four strong sentences which do not need to follow any set formula. Simply review the main points (being careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly describe your feelings about the topic.
 
7) Add the finishing touches.
  
- Check the order of your paragraphs.
- Check the instructions for the assignment.
- Check your writing.
Parts of an Essay
Introduction: The introduction paragraph is the first paragraph of your essay. It introduces the main idea of your essay. A good opening paragraph captures the interest of your reader and tells why your topic is important.
 
1. Write the thesis statement. The main idea of the essay is stated in a single sentence called the thesis statement. You must limit your entire essay to the topic you have introduced in your thesis statement.

2. Provide some background information about your topic. You can use interesting facts, quotations, or definitions of important terms you will use later in the essay.
 
Piemērs:
Hockey has been a part of life in Canada for over 120 years. It has evolved into an extremely popular sport watched and played by millions of Canadians. The game has gone through several changes since hockey was first played in Canada.
 
Supporting paragraphs: Supporting paragraphs make up the main body of your essay. They develop the main idea of your essay.

1. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay.

2. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph.

3. Develop each supporting point with facts, details, and examples.

To connect your supporting paragraphs, you should use special transition words. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs.
 
Like all good paragraphs, each supporting paragraph should have a topic sentence, supporting sentences, and a summary sentence.
 
Summary paragraph: The summary paragraph comes at the end of your essay after you have finished developing your ideas. The summary paragraph is often called a "conclusion." It summarizes or restates the main idea of the essay. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete.
 
1. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea.

2. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words.

3. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action.
 
Piemērs:
Overall, the changes that occurred in hockey have helped to improve the game. Hockey is faster and more exciting as a result of changes in the past 120 years. For these reasons, modern hockey is a better game than hockey in the 1890s.
Some useful phrases for essays
Introductory remarks
- The aim of this essay is to answer a crucial question...
- A useful starting point for this study is...
- A problem that is often debated nowadays is that of...
- It would be naive to suppose that...
- We must first refer to...
- Nowadays a lot of people say that...
- It is often said that...
- There is a wide variety of opinions about...
- What we are mainly concerned with here is...
- We live in a world in which history provides numerous examples of...
- There is a widespread attitude nowadays that...
- ...is an attempt to...
- To start with, let us consider...
 
Developing the argument
- Let us start by considering...
- Let us try to understand thoroughly...
- Even a superficial look at this issue reveals...
- When we talk of... we think of...
- The first thing to be said about the topic under consideration is that...
 
The other side of the argument
- It is now time to discuss...
- Let us now go on to consider...
- Another way of looking at this question is to...
- The other side of the coin is...
- Finally, we must raise the question...
- The arguments against... seem very cogent...
- It would not be difficult to make out a convincing case for...
- The objection of these arguments could be that...
 
The balanced view
- If one weights the pros and cons...
- The issue of... could be approached from the other angle...
- This is a relatively minor problem, when compared to...
- The other factors (that...) should be taken into account...
- It will be interesting to see whether...
- However it should be pointed out that...
 
The conclusion
- What conclusion can be drawn from...
- Everything that has been said illustrates...
- The issue under consideration can be summed up thus:...
- I can see, then, that...
- Ultimately, then...
- The best way of summing up is to...
- In conclusion/to conclude...
- The inevitable conclusion, therefore, is that...
- To conclude... it only remains to add that...
Examples of transition words that can help you to link your paragraphs together:
For listing different points:
- First...
- Second...
- Third...
 
For counter examples:
- However...
- Even though...
- On the other hand...
- Nevertheless...
 
For additional ideas:
- Another...
- In addition to...
- Related to...
- Furthermore...
- Also..
 
To show cause and effect:
- Therefore...
- Thus...
- As a result of...
- Consequently...